Governance matters for development. Indeed, there is a growing recognition that many persistent development problems reflect failure of governance. Because development is about people, a people-centred development is inconceivable without democracy. The anecdotal evidence is that democratic governance does promote sustainable human development, particularly because it allows citizens to be at the centre of both governance and development.
Beyond its intrinsic value of promoting civil and political liberties, democracy is also relevant to Africa because of its instrumental value, as measured by the extent to which democracy delivers basic needs, such as food, health, education, housing, and environmental protection, among others.
In Africa, as in other parts of the world, the utility of democracy must be measured by the extent to which it delivers positive outcomes for the ordinary man and woman in the street. Of what use is democracy if it fails to put bread on the table? This is a governance challenge, much of which could be addressed through regular, credible and transparent elections. When elections are transparent, free and fair, they produce leaders with vision who could transform societies.
ELECTIONS AND DEMOCRACY
Although critical to the democratization process, elections are not synonymous with democracy. As stated in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2002, “true democratization means more than elections. It requires the consolidation of democratic institutions and the strengthening of democratic practices, with democratic values and norms embedded in all parts of society.”
Elections can either promote democracy or inhibit it. The UNDP has identified these conditions as crucial to the democratization process, namely:
i. a system of representation, with well functioning political parties and interest associations;
ii. a system of checks and balances based on the separation of power, with independent judicial and legislative branches;
iii. a vibrant civil society, able to monitor government and private business and provide alternative forms of political participation; and
iv. free and independent media, and effective civilian control of the military and other security forces.
In situations where there are weak institutions and strong men, elections can, infact, promote and legitimize autocracy, the kind of context President Obama warned against in his July 2009 address in Accra, Ghana. President Obama has warned in his Accra address that what Africa needs are strong institutions, not strong men.
Election for election’s sake is an exercise in futility. To be socially useful, an election must be a means to an end. That end is the transformation of society, including nation-building and the promotion of peace and stability.
PROMOTING DIVERSITY THROUGH DEMOCRACY
One of the insidious legacies of colonialism in Africa is the arbitrary division of the continent along cultural and identity fault lines. How best to manage these diversities, especially during elections, remains one of the main governance challenges in Africa today. These diversities will not simply disappear all by themselves. African States must therefore find creative ways of managing their differences while forging national unity as part of nation-building efforts.
Whereas unity is perfectly possible in diversity, across Africa elections have exacerbated conflict along cultural and identity fault lines. Looking forward, African countries would do well to adopt good practices for the constructive management of socio-cultural diversity. Some of these policies may include but are not limited to:
I promotion of political participation of diverse socio-cultural groups through power sharing, either by means of the federalism principle, or through proportional electoral representation;
ii promotion of freedom of religious practices and rights of minorities;
iii non-discriminatory language policy in schools; and
iv addressing socio-economic exclusion and taking affirmative action in favour of disadvantaged groups.
There are several reasons why Nigeria, indeed Africa, must institutionalize democracy, both as a system of governance and as a way of life. Despite the poverty challenge, perhaps the single most important cause of conflict across Africa is poor governance and closed political process, often occurring in the context of profound state debilitation. There are, therefore, two major challenges to address.
First, countries of Africa must scale up efforts to create and nurture viable and capable states – states that are able to provide security, alleviate poverty and ensure the equitable distribution of public goods. Second, African countries must institutionalize the principles of political pluralism, good governance, rule of law and respect for minority and human rights.
For countries of Africa, popular participation in the political process is, therefore, an urgent task. This is so because it is the perception of being discriminated against, the feeling of unjustified exclusion from access-political and economic – that fuel resentment and breed frustration and anger in much of the countries of Africa. In other words, many of the grievances that lead to conflict in Africa take their roots from perceptions of powerlessness and exclusion.
That being the case, to the extent that the political process is opened to all interest groups; to the degree that the political process is inclusive, not discriminatory; to the extent that the institutions of governance are truly representative of social diversities, only to this extent can conflict be avoided. This is why democratic governance, which guarantees participation and access, holds the key to Africa’s stability and development.
BUILDING DEMOCRACY THROUGH INSTITUTIONS
In many countries of Africa, a central challenge for strengthening democracy is building the key institutions of democratic governance. These institutions come in many shapes and forms. Whereas democracy is a universally recognized ideal based on values common to people every where regardless of cultural, political, social and economic differences, the democracy a nation chooses to develop depends on its history and circumstances.
This means that countries will necessarily be differently democratic. No single form of democracy can therefore be prescribed as the one and final version. Be that as it may, there are key institutions of democracy that form the bedrock of democratic governance everywhere. These institutions have to be strengthened to make democracy take root in Africa.
- A parliament, endowed with institutional powers and practical means to express the will of the people by legislating and overseeing government action.
- A Transparent and neutral electoral body that enjoys the trust and confidence of all political parties and interest groups.
- Well-functioning political parties as agents of mobilization and interest articulation.
- An independent judiciary, able to act as an impartial adjudicator of the laws.
- An effective, efficient and transparent government.
- A vibrant civil society, able to defend diversity, pluralism and the right to be different within a tolerant law-based society.
- A free and independent media, able to hold government and public officials accountable; and
- An enlightened citizenry, able to participate freely and meaningfully in the democratic process.
Democracy is always a work in progress, a state or condition constantly perfectible. However, democracy requires much more than strengthening the formal institutions of democracy. It requires that democratic governments respond to the economic and social needs of the people. In particular, it requires mass education, to enable people participate effectively in politics. It requires the fostering and development of civil society and other informal traditional institutions to help democratic institutions better represent the people.
In Africa, as in other parts of the world, the utility of democracy must be measured by the extent to which it delivers positive development outcomes for the people. Of what use is democracy if it fails to put bread on the table? Making democracy work for the people is a governance challenge, much of which could be addressed through regular, credible and transparent elections. When elections are transparent, free and fair, they produce leaders with vision who alone can transform societies. However, democratic governance has to be efficient and intolerant of corruption to make the difference in people’s lives. However critical it is to the democratization process, elections do not make democracy. Democracy requires the consolidation of democratic institutions and the strengthening of democratic practices, with democratic values and norms embedded in all parts of society. In situations where there are weak institutions and strong men elections can, in fact, promote and legitimize autocracy, the kind of context President Barack Obama warned against in his July, `2009 address in Accra, Ghana. Strengthening democratic institutions will enable African countries to avoid this pitfall.
…to be continued
The Data of Forgiveness
The most important ingredient in today’s media economy is data. The amount of data available determines how much and how long we can work or play on the internet. Currently, many of the service providers offer unlimited data plans but we know that those “unlimited” plans are not always unlimited. Sometimes, your download speed can get slowed down when you cross a certain point. Today, however, Jesus gives us the divine model of an unlimited plan. It is the unlimited bundle of compassion and forgiveness which never gets slowed downed shut down for maintenance. The theme for this week is that we must learn to forgive without limits no matter the injury committed against us.
In Matthew’s Gospel, today’s teaching on unlimited forgiveness comes after Jesus had told his disciples the parable of the wandering sheep, so it is plausible that some would have wondered among themselves how many times a good shepherd should go after the same sheep if it keeps wandering away. In those days, people believed that forgiveness was limited to three times only – a fourth transgression was not to be forgiven. So, by asking Jesus how many times he should forgive his brother, Peter was probably aiming to increase the limit to seven times. And Jesus makes it clear that we are to forgive others, “not seven times but seventy-seven times” (Matt. 18:22).That means we must dispense an unlimited data bundle of mercy.
In Jesus Christ, we have the forgiveness of a debt we could never pay. Sin is an offence against God and a direct rebellion against his authority and creation. The debt of 10,000 talents mentioned in today’s parable symbolizes the magnitude of the offence that sin causes in God’s eyes, but he is always willing to forgive without limits. However, we can easily cut ourselves off from God’s river of mercy when we refuse to forgive others. We end up restraining God’s mercy and putting ourselves under strict justice. To unfold his mercy without compromising his justice, God leaves each person free to choose between the two. If we insist on strict justice when we are offended, we bring God’s strict justice upon ourselves. But if we offer an unlimited bundle of mercy to others, we draw God’s unlimited data of forgiveness upon ourselves.
The secret to forming a forgiving heart lies in recognizing the evil of our sin and the immensity of God’s goodness in forgiving us. Until we see the ugliness of our ingratitude and selfishness, we will never appreciate the generosity of God’s forgiveness. Let us examine ourselves now to see how much forgiveness we are giving. Is there someone we still cannot forgive even after they have expressed sorrow for their actions? Have we judged someone too harshly because of something they said or did that we did not particularly like? How many times have we failed to help somebody because we are still dwelling on an injury that we suffered many years ago? How many times have we treated someone differently based on preconceived notions or stereotypes? These are some of the factors that shackle us like chains and that disrupt the unlimited data of divine grace in our lives. When we close ourselves off to people or dismiss them based on our preconceptions, mistaken judgments, and prejudices, not only do we make them suffer, we suffer as well.
But it does not have to be that way. Jesus came to free us from and the burden of sin and unhappiness. Forgiveness is like mercury, which runs away when it is held tightly in the hand but is preserved by keeping the palm open. When we lose forgiveness, we lose the ability to give and to receive love because love is the foundation of forgiveness. And since God is the foundation of love, whoever refuses to forgive automatically rejects the love of God. This is the essence of today’s parable and it is highlighted by the contrast between what was owed by each man. The wicked slave owed his master some 10000 talents. In gold terms, that is 350 tons and at today’s price, he owed his master USD21.8 billion. This was way more than King Solomon made in a year which was 666 talents of gold or USD1.45 billion in today’s value (cf. I Kings 10:14). So, this unforgiving servant owed his master what no individual could never payback. In contrast, his fellow servant owed him the equivalent of one talent of gold or USD2.1 million; so a man who was forgiven $21.8b could not let go of $2.1m, and his wickedness landed him in the hands of torturers.
Dear friends, forgiveness is an act of compassion which is expressed in the free choice to pardon one another’s shortcomings every day, and to also pardon ourselves for own mistakes Forgiveness transcends the fear of being wounded again; it is a deliberate act in imitation of the redemptive work of Jesus, the advocacy of the Holy Spirit, and the loving kindness of the Father. The whole point of today’s parable is that our Father in heaven will do the same to anyone who refuses to forgive others. Whoever refuses to forgive is doomed to a life of bitterness, and as the ugly trend continues, the person ends up building invisible walls of resentment around themselves, thereby blocking off not just one’s relationships with other people but with God as well. Forgiveness is not just an emotional expression or a sense of righteousness; it means being merciful not only when there is an explanation or apology, or a promise of amendment from the offender, but even when the offence is deliberate, and the offender is adamant. Forgiveness is a precious gift of grace, which does not depend on the worthiness of the receiver. Forgiveness is what we called to do, and the Lord’s grace is sufficient for us in that regard. Amen.
Imo Deputy Governor’s giant strides towards revitalizing agriculture
By Joy Opara
The increasing cost of Agricultural products in Imo State in recent times has continued to be a major source of concern to the citizens of the state.
A critical appraisal of the development of Agriculture in this state reveals that successive governments had neglected this major sector of the economy, over three decades now, and this has adversely affected the revenue of government.
In line with the vision of the “shared prosperity” government of the Hope Uzodinma administration, the revolution of agriculture is among its cardinal programmes for which a high powered committee (on agricultural master plan for Imo State) has been set up.
For the purpose of resuscitating all moribund agricultural industries and facilities in the state, it is not surprising that this committee is headed by a world class Professor of Agriculture and Deputy Governor of Imo State, Prof. Placid Njoku.
The need to diversify the economy cannot be over-emphasized. It is a well known fact that there is no better and more sustainable means of diversifying the economy than through agriculture. It would be recalled that after the inauguration of his committee, the deputy governor went into action, first by visiting all moribund agricultural facilities in the state, which included Adapalm in Ohaji/ Egbema LGA, Avutu Poultry farm in Avutu, Obowo LGA, Songhai farms, Okigwe road, Owerri, ADP farms in Nekede, Owerri West. Others are Acharaubo farms in Emekuku, Owerri North, Imo Rubber Plantation in Obiti, Ohaji/ Egbema, amongst others.
Prof. Njoku in one of his speeches during the tour described agriculture as the economic base of most countries of the world. Considering the dwindling oil revenue, he said it should be a source of worry to people of good conscience that the vision of our founding fathers to generate revenue, food security, economic advancement, industrialization, employment and eradication of poverty was destroyed by successive governments.
The Deputy Governor, who not only is acknowledged as one of the greatest professors of Animal Science, a renowned Agriculturist and former Vice Chancellor of a leading University of Agriculture, the Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike, made it clear that the present government led by Governor Hope Uzodinma is desirous to return agriculture to its former glory.
The Ikeduru-born technocrat and farmer per-excellence said that the 3R Mantra of this administration namely: Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Recovery is a base for making the dream of Imo State as the food basket of the nation come true.
Noting that government is a continuum, the deputy governor promised that his committee will build upon what is already on ground by rehabilitating the ones that could be rehabilitated and bringing in new facilities where necessary to ensure that the passion of the governor towards agricultural revival is achieved.
Meanwhile, in most of the establishments visited by the committee, it was discovered that indigenes of the communities had badly encroached into the lands and converted them to personal use. Investigations by the committee revealed that agents of some past governments in the state connived with the communities to make it possible, for their personal aggrandizement.
The deputy governor, whose humility has become legendary pledged his total support to the Governor, Senator Hope Uzodinma whom he described as God sent to right all that were done wrong by the previous administrations in the state. He called on all to give this administration the needed support to rewrite the history of Imo State in gold, especially the agricultural sector.
Child Abuse: A case of betrayal of reciprocal trust
By Christian Uzoukwu
Some years ago, while as a kid, I fell out with my father due to an occasion of sheer disobedience and on that very day, I was given no food and was ultimately battered by hunger. Child abuse includes both acts of commission and omission on the part of parents, guardians as well as care-givers.
These acts have led to a lot of actual and threatened harm meted out on countless number of children. In 2014, the WHO made an estimate of 41,000 children (under the age of 15) that are victims of homicide and other related offences. This estimate, as expounded by this world body is grossly below the real figures due to the views of the society in relation to corporal punishment experienced by children. Girls are always most vulnerable to different forms of child abuse during unrests and in war-thorn territories.
Cases of child abuse can be established in some deadly human vices such as child trafficking, child labour, forced adoption as seen in the one-child policy prevalent in China. In the Asian country, women, by law are only allowed to have one child. Local governments would sometimes allow the woman to give birth and then they would take the baby away stating the mother violated the one child policy. Child traffickers, often paid by the government, would sell the children to orphanages that would arrange international adoptions worth tens of thousands of dollars, turning a profit for the government.
Other striking examples of child abuse are the various forms of violence against the girl-child which involves infanticide, sex-selective abortions, female genital mutilations (FGM), sexual initiation of virgins in some African cultures, breast ironing in some parts of Cameroon – involving the vicious use of hot stones and other tools to flatten the breast tissue of girls who have attained the age of puberty. As if those were not enough, female students are also subject to maltreatments in countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is not to talk of recurring kidnapp of female students in some parts of Nigeria, as we saw in the case of Dapchi and Chibok schoolgirls.
Based on simple analysis, child abuse can be defined as “all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”.
This definition by WHO also falls in line with the definition propounded by the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, which says that child abuse are acts of commission. This commission includes “words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child”, and acts of omission (neglect), meaning “the failure to provide for a child’s basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm.
In Nigeria, most cases of child abuse have become cumbersome due to the fact that these acts of abuses are regarded as mere punishments to unruly young ones and by so doing, should be justified and doesn’t call for any further discussion and/or scrutiny. According to various statistical studies and researches, child abuse is a vast societal cankerworm and has four profound tentacles viz:
Physical Abuse: this involves undue hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, burning, strangling, insertion of pepper into the eyes and pubic regions of children, maltreatments from house-help(s) and seniors at boarding/day schools, suffocating and forcing children to live in unwholesome conditions.
Sexual Abuse also includes persuading a minor into acts of sexual intercourse, exposure of the child’s private parts, production of child-related pornographic contents and actual sexual contacts with children.
Psychological Abuse of children can be seen in cases of excessive scolding, lack of proper attention that children should be receiving from their parents and guardians, destructive criticisms and destruction of a child’s personality.
Neglect of children can also lead to children dropping out of schools, begging/stealing for food and money, lack of proper medical care for minors and realities of children looking like ragamuffins.
Consequently, the causes of child abuse can be judiciously related to sex, age, personal history, societal norms, economic challenges, lack of Rights’ Protection Agencies, parents battling with traits of alcoholism and family size. These causative agents of child abuse can bring untold effects upon the society at large and these effects can be emotional, physical and psychological as the case may be, giving rise to individuals with dissociative lifestyles.
Furthermore, the treatment of individuals who have been malformed with respect to the abuses they experienced abinitio, can be a long process because it involves behavioral therapy and other forms of neoteric therapies. Treatments of psyche-related problems are not just a one-day process due to the long-lasting effects of abuses on various conscious mental activities. It is also noteworthy to point out that, prevention is always better than cure and holding fast to this true reality, entails that agencies who have the responsibility of protecting the rights of children must continue to do the needful which requires proper oversights of parent-child relationships.
To conclude this piece therefore, we must agree that untold hardships have been a great challenge for children especially in Africa and some parts of Asia. Children with long histories of abuses turn out to become societal misfits. To this end we encourage that: Children should be given a free platform to express themselves on many topical issues and issues relating to their existence.
Children should also be allowed to freely ask questions on any issue, no matter, how weird it seems to be.
Governments should make regulations outlawing societal norms and values that might amount to child abuses.
Corporal punishments by parents, guardians and care-givers should be discouraged at all levels, thereby making parents/guardians/care-givers who seem to be incorrigible, to face the full weight of justice enshrined in the law of the land.
Education system (both conventional and unconventional) in Nigeria should be able to train up young ones into becoming critical, analytical and evaluative individuals with a view of defending the vulnerable.
And again, since children are said to be leaders of tomorrow, it is pertinent to note that to secure their future, their present existence must be cherished and protected.
Christian Chimemerem Uzoukwu
08100029867 / 09025760804
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