Purgatory is a very sensitive doctrinal issue that hinges on faith and the Scripture. It is defined as a “Condition after death in which the soul requires to be purified by temporary suffering”, or “any place of temporary expiation”. Its existence has continued to generate a lot of controversy among Christian. While some express the belief that there is purgatory, others negatively react sharply and harshly by asking: “Where is it in the Bible”? The unbelievers in purgatory may rightly or wrongly teach others not to believe because it cannot be found in the Bible. The word ‘PURGATORY’ is actually not in the Bible, but purgatory in the real sense is very clear in the Scriptures for those who have the eyes to see and the mind to understand.
Understanding the Scriptures and Doctrines
Bible preachers who argue the Word of God are apostates who read the Bible literally without the inspiration of the Holy Spirit; hence, they lack understanding and delight in misinterpretation.
“They are bold and arrogant and show no respect for the glorious
beings above; …they attack with insults anything they do not understand: (2nd Pt 2:10-12)/ Christ told such people; – “You are wrong; you do not understand the Scriptures, or what is the power of God” (Mt 22:29). “You study the Scriptures, because you think that in them you will find eternal life” (Jn 5:39).
Our attitude towards reading the Bible as the Word of God must be aided with humility, chastity, obedience, holiness and faith. The nonconformists fail to realize that their favourite words like reverend, venerable, Canon, Bible, Trinity, Ascension, Incarnation, Radio, Television, Motor, Posters, Microphone, to mention but a few, cannot be found in the Bible. Yet, these words and organs play vital roles in evangelization and salvation of man. The critics of purgatory forget that the Bible itself is only a summary of all that Christ taught and did.
“If all of it were put in writing, the world itself would not contain the books” (Jn 21-25). “Everything in the Scripture has been divinely inspired and has its uses; to instruct us, to expose our errors, to correct our faults, to educate us in holy living…” (2nd Tim 3:16-17).
It therefore means that all the doctrines of the Church, including purgatory are rooted in the Bible while the Bible itself remains the product of the Church that compiled it.
Determinant Factors for Eternity
There are three main conditions awaiting every soul immediately after death – Heaven, Hell or Purgatory as the case may be. These conditions are determined by the state of grace or sin of a person at the point of death. While the soul of a righteous man ascends to Heaven, “a place of eternal joy”, that of a sinful man goes to Hell or purgatory because “Nothing that is impure will enter the city, nor anyone who does shameful things or tells lies” (Rev 21-27). “All wrong-doing is sin, but there is sin which does not lead to death” (1st Jn 5:16-17). People who die in mortal sin go straight to Hell, “the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, and it is the second death” (Rev 21:8). Those who die in venial sin go to purgatory where they suffer temporarily while awaiting the prayers of the faithful that assist in purifying them. The Church clarifies the situation by teaching that:
“The souls that go to purgatory are those of people who preserved the gift of grace but die while guilty of un-repented venial sins or who die without doing sufficient penance to pay the debt of temporary punishment still due their past sins”.
Consequently, Christians pray – “May the Souls of the Faithful Departed Through the Mercy of God, REST IN PEACE”. We implore the Lord to “Grant them eternal rest and let perpetual light shine upon them”. These prayers are offered for people who depart neither good nor bad since we are never sure of where a soul goes after death. It is an established doctrine that souls in Heaven or Hell do not deserve prayers because their eternity has been decided. The scripture says that Judas Maccabeus
“Considered that they who had fallen asleep with Godliness has great grace laid up for them. It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins”.
He emphasized the importance of praying for the dead and
“took up a collection from all his men, totaling about two kilogrammes of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering for soldiers who died in battle (2 Mac 12:38-46).
Parables and Teachings about Purgatory
Our Lord Jesus Christ preached the existence of purgatory in some of his parables. The Bible says that the purpose of Christ’s parables was to – “make people look, but not see, and listen, but not understand” (Lk 8:10). Some people have heard the Good News repeatedly without paying any heed, (Is 6:7-10) hence, they have continued to preach non-existence of purgatory, apparently, due to lack of understanding Christ said that: “an offender must remain in prison until he pays the last penny of his fine” (Mt 5:26; Lk 12:58-59). The offender in this case is the venial sinner and the prison is purgatory, while his last penny stands for the duration of his expiation. He also said – “The servant who knows what his master wants him to do, but does not get himself ready and do it, will be punished with a heavy whipping. But the servant who does not know what his master wants, and yet does something for which he deserves a shipping, will be punished with a light whipping” (Lk 12:27-48). Two types of sinners are involved here – a mortal sinner and venial sinner. While the mortal sinner is thrown into a condition of severe punishment which is hell, the venial sinner is said to be thrown into a condition of light punishment which is purgatory. The scripture says that people who tried desperately to do God’s will but could not merit heaven immediately after death, will be purified with fire before they enter heaven; …”he himself will be saved, though only as men are saved by passing through fire” (1 Cor 3:12-15) (KNOX VERSION). The ritual of purification takes place in purgatory. People who enter heaven after purification in purgatory are referred to as “the spirits of just men, now made perfect” while those who enter heaven straight immediately after death are called “the Assembly of those first-born sons whose names are written in heaven” (Heb 12:22-23). After his death, “Christ went in his spiritual existence and preached to the imprisoned spirits” (1 Pt 3:19) whom He purified with His blood. “The graves broke open, and many of God’s people who died were raised to life. They left the graves, and after Jesus rose from death, they went into the Holy City, where many people saw them” (Matt 27:52-53).
Impartial Judgement of God and Man
God of justice and mercy – “rewards each one according to his deeds” (Mt 16:27). “He judges all people by the same standard, according to what each one has done” (1 Pt 1:17).
Consequently, a mortal sinner is never rewarded equally with a venial sinner. It could be said that purgatory originated out of the mercy of God, as a condition whereby sins already forgiven but not fully reparated for, are expiated.
In Law Courts, the impartial Judge punishes offenders adequately for their offences. An accused is discharged and acquitted if he is found not guilty. If he is found to have committed a grievous offence to merit a capital punishment, he will be sentenced to death. An accused may be imprisoned for a short term or fined in the alternative if he is found to have committed a minor offence that neither attracts capital punishment nor merits discharge and acquittal.
Unbelief in the existence of purgatory, trivializing or ignoring it will definitely earn us a frightening longer period there if we are lucky to make it. Souls in purgatory suffer terrible cleansing pains and are temporarily deprived of their heavenly reward of union with God. St. Augustine said – “The suffering of those who are experiencing the holy cleansing fire of purgatory is more severe than anything we experience in this life”. The faithful departed can do nothing to shorten their sufferings in purgatory they are always crying – “pity me, pity me, O’ you my friends for the hand of God has struck me” (Job 19:21). “A thirst is my soul for God…; when shall I go and behold the face of God” (Ps 42:2). Their only hope depends on the prayers of the living Christians should therefore do for the souls in purgatory what we hope others will someday do for us. Their gratitude to their benefactors knows no bound whenever they are finally released.
In order to escape the painful cleansing fire of purgatory when we die, we must acknowledge the reality of purgatory offer prayers fervently for the departed souls, especially our dear ones, repent and do penance for sins already forgiven.
Purgatory which originated out of God’s mercy will cease to exist at the end of time when –
“Those who have died believing in Christ will rise to life first; then we who are living at that time will be gathered up along with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will always be with the Lord” (1 Thes 4:16-17).
The Data of Forgiveness
The most important ingredient in today’s media economy is data. The amount of data available determines how much and how long we can work or play on the internet. Currently, many of the service providers offer unlimited data plans but we know that those “unlimited” plans are not always unlimited. Sometimes, your download speed can get slowed down when you cross a certain point. Today, however, Jesus gives us the divine model of an unlimited plan. It is the unlimited bundle of compassion and forgiveness which never gets slowed downed shut down for maintenance. The theme for this week is that we must learn to forgive without limits no matter the injury committed against us.
In Matthew’s Gospel, today’s teaching on unlimited forgiveness comes after Jesus had told his disciples the parable of the wandering sheep, so it is plausible that some would have wondered among themselves how many times a good shepherd should go after the same sheep if it keeps wandering away. In those days, people believed that forgiveness was limited to three times only – a fourth transgression was not to be forgiven. So, by asking Jesus how many times he should forgive his brother, Peter was probably aiming to increase the limit to seven times. And Jesus makes it clear that we are to forgive others, “not seven times but seventy-seven times” (Matt. 18:22).That means we must dispense an unlimited data bundle of mercy.
In Jesus Christ, we have the forgiveness of a debt we could never pay. Sin is an offence against God and a direct rebellion against his authority and creation. The debt of 10,000 talents mentioned in today’s parable symbolizes the magnitude of the offence that sin causes in God’s eyes, but he is always willing to forgive without limits. However, we can easily cut ourselves off from God’s river of mercy when we refuse to forgive others. We end up restraining God’s mercy and putting ourselves under strict justice. To unfold his mercy without compromising his justice, God leaves each person free to choose between the two. If we insist on strict justice when we are offended, we bring God’s strict justice upon ourselves. But if we offer an unlimited bundle of mercy to others, we draw God’s unlimited data of forgiveness upon ourselves.
The secret to forming a forgiving heart lies in recognizing the evil of our sin and the immensity of God’s goodness in forgiving us. Until we see the ugliness of our ingratitude and selfishness, we will never appreciate the generosity of God’s forgiveness. Let us examine ourselves now to see how much forgiveness we are giving. Is there someone we still cannot forgive even after they have expressed sorrow for their actions? Have we judged someone too harshly because of something they said or did that we did not particularly like? How many times have we failed to help somebody because we are still dwelling on an injury that we suffered many years ago? How many times have we treated someone differently based on preconceived notions or stereotypes? These are some of the factors that shackle us like chains and that disrupt the unlimited data of divine grace in our lives. When we close ourselves off to people or dismiss them based on our preconceptions, mistaken judgments, and prejudices, not only do we make them suffer, we suffer as well.
But it does not have to be that way. Jesus came to free us from and the burden of sin and unhappiness. Forgiveness is like mercury, which runs away when it is held tightly in the hand but is preserved by keeping the palm open. When we lose forgiveness, we lose the ability to give and to receive love because love is the foundation of forgiveness. And since God is the foundation of love, whoever refuses to forgive automatically rejects the love of God. This is the essence of today’s parable and it is highlighted by the contrast between what was owed by each man. The wicked slave owed his master some 10000 talents. In gold terms, that is 350 tons and at today’s price, he owed his master USD21.8 billion. This was way more than King Solomon made in a year which was 666 talents of gold or USD1.45 billion in today’s value (cf. I Kings 10:14). So, this unforgiving servant owed his master what no individual could never payback. In contrast, his fellow servant owed him the equivalent of one talent of gold or USD2.1 million; so a man who was forgiven $21.8b could not let go of $2.1m, and his wickedness landed him in the hands of torturers.
Dear friends, forgiveness is an act of compassion which is expressed in the free choice to pardon one another’s shortcomings every day, and to also pardon ourselves for own mistakes Forgiveness transcends the fear of being wounded again; it is a deliberate act in imitation of the redemptive work of Jesus, the advocacy of the Holy Spirit, and the loving kindness of the Father. The whole point of today’s parable is that our Father in heaven will do the same to anyone who refuses to forgive others. Whoever refuses to forgive is doomed to a life of bitterness, and as the ugly trend continues, the person ends up building invisible walls of resentment around themselves, thereby blocking off not just one’s relationships with other people but with God as well. Forgiveness is not just an emotional expression or a sense of righteousness; it means being merciful not only when there is an explanation or apology, or a promise of amendment from the offender, but even when the offence is deliberate, and the offender is adamant. Forgiveness is a precious gift of grace, which does not depend on the worthiness of the receiver. Forgiveness is what we called to do, and the Lord’s grace is sufficient for us in that regard. Amen.
Imo Deputy Governor’s giant strides towards revitalizing agriculture
By Joy Opara
The increasing cost of Agricultural products in Imo State in recent times has continued to be a major source of concern to the citizens of the state.
A critical appraisal of the development of Agriculture in this state reveals that successive governments had neglected this major sector of the economy, over three decades now, and this has adversely affected the revenue of government.
In line with the vision of the “shared prosperity” government of the Hope Uzodinma administration, the revolution of agriculture is among its cardinal programmes for which a high powered committee (on agricultural master plan for Imo State) has been set up.
For the purpose of resuscitating all moribund agricultural industries and facilities in the state, it is not surprising that this committee is headed by a world class Professor of Agriculture and Deputy Governor of Imo State, Prof. Placid Njoku.
The need to diversify the economy cannot be over-emphasized. It is a well known fact that there is no better and more sustainable means of diversifying the economy than through agriculture. It would be recalled that after the inauguration of his committee, the deputy governor went into action, first by visiting all moribund agricultural facilities in the state, which included Adapalm in Ohaji/ Egbema LGA, Avutu Poultry farm in Avutu, Obowo LGA, Songhai farms, Okigwe road, Owerri, ADP farms in Nekede, Owerri West. Others are Acharaubo farms in Emekuku, Owerri North, Imo Rubber Plantation in Obiti, Ohaji/ Egbema, amongst others.
Prof. Njoku in one of his speeches during the tour described agriculture as the economic base of most countries of the world. Considering the dwindling oil revenue, he said it should be a source of worry to people of good conscience that the vision of our founding fathers to generate revenue, food security, economic advancement, industrialization, employment and eradication of poverty was destroyed by successive governments.
The Deputy Governor, who not only is acknowledged as one of the greatest professors of Animal Science, a renowned Agriculturist and former Vice Chancellor of a leading University of Agriculture, the Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike, made it clear that the present government led by Governor Hope Uzodinma is desirous to return agriculture to its former glory.
The Ikeduru-born technocrat and farmer per-excellence said that the 3R Mantra of this administration namely: Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Recovery is a base for making the dream of Imo State as the food basket of the nation come true.
Noting that government is a continuum, the deputy governor promised that his committee will build upon what is already on ground by rehabilitating the ones that could be rehabilitated and bringing in new facilities where necessary to ensure that the passion of the governor towards agricultural revival is achieved.
Meanwhile, in most of the establishments visited by the committee, it was discovered that indigenes of the communities had badly encroached into the lands and converted them to personal use. Investigations by the committee revealed that agents of some past governments in the state connived with the communities to make it possible, for their personal aggrandizement.
The deputy governor, whose humility has become legendary pledged his total support to the Governor, Senator Hope Uzodinma whom he described as God sent to right all that were done wrong by the previous administrations in the state. He called on all to give this administration the needed support to rewrite the history of Imo State in gold, especially the agricultural sector.
Child Abuse: A case of betrayal of reciprocal trust
By Christian Uzoukwu
Some years ago, while as a kid, I fell out with my father due to an occasion of sheer disobedience and on that very day, I was given no food and was ultimately battered by hunger. Child abuse includes both acts of commission and omission on the part of parents, guardians as well as care-givers.
These acts have led to a lot of actual and threatened harm meted out on countless number of children. In 2014, the WHO made an estimate of 41,000 children (under the age of 15) that are victims of homicide and other related offences. This estimate, as expounded by this world body is grossly below the real figures due to the views of the society in relation to corporal punishment experienced by children. Girls are always most vulnerable to different forms of child abuse during unrests and in war-thorn territories.
Cases of child abuse can be established in some deadly human vices such as child trafficking, child labour, forced adoption as seen in the one-child policy prevalent in China. In the Asian country, women, by law are only allowed to have one child. Local governments would sometimes allow the woman to give birth and then they would take the baby away stating the mother violated the one child policy. Child traffickers, often paid by the government, would sell the children to orphanages that would arrange international adoptions worth tens of thousands of dollars, turning a profit for the government.
Other striking examples of child abuse are the various forms of violence against the girl-child which involves infanticide, sex-selective abortions, female genital mutilations (FGM), sexual initiation of virgins in some African cultures, breast ironing in some parts of Cameroon – involving the vicious use of hot stones and other tools to flatten the breast tissue of girls who have attained the age of puberty. As if those were not enough, female students are also subject to maltreatments in countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is not to talk of recurring kidnapp of female students in some parts of Nigeria, as we saw in the case of Dapchi and Chibok schoolgirls.
Based on simple analysis, child abuse can be defined as “all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”.
This definition by WHO also falls in line with the definition propounded by the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, which says that child abuse are acts of commission. This commission includes “words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child”, and acts of omission (neglect), meaning “the failure to provide for a child’s basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm.
In Nigeria, most cases of child abuse have become cumbersome due to the fact that these acts of abuses are regarded as mere punishments to unruly young ones and by so doing, should be justified and doesn’t call for any further discussion and/or scrutiny. According to various statistical studies and researches, child abuse is a vast societal cankerworm and has four profound tentacles viz:
Physical Abuse: this involves undue hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, burning, strangling, insertion of pepper into the eyes and pubic regions of children, maltreatments from house-help(s) and seniors at boarding/day schools, suffocating and forcing children to live in unwholesome conditions.
Sexual Abuse also includes persuading a minor into acts of sexual intercourse, exposure of the child’s private parts, production of child-related pornographic contents and actual sexual contacts with children.
Psychological Abuse of children can be seen in cases of excessive scolding, lack of proper attention that children should be receiving from their parents and guardians, destructive criticisms and destruction of a child’s personality.
Neglect of children can also lead to children dropping out of schools, begging/stealing for food and money, lack of proper medical care for minors and realities of children looking like ragamuffins.
Consequently, the causes of child abuse can be judiciously related to sex, age, personal history, societal norms, economic challenges, lack of Rights’ Protection Agencies, parents battling with traits of alcoholism and family size. These causative agents of child abuse can bring untold effects upon the society at large and these effects can be emotional, physical and psychological as the case may be, giving rise to individuals with dissociative lifestyles.
Furthermore, the treatment of individuals who have been malformed with respect to the abuses they experienced abinitio, can be a long process because it involves behavioral therapy and other forms of neoteric therapies. Treatments of psyche-related problems are not just a one-day process due to the long-lasting effects of abuses on various conscious mental activities. It is also noteworthy to point out that, prevention is always better than cure and holding fast to this true reality, entails that agencies who have the responsibility of protecting the rights of children must continue to do the needful which requires proper oversights of parent-child relationships.
To conclude this piece therefore, we must agree that untold hardships have been a great challenge for children especially in Africa and some parts of Asia. Children with long histories of abuses turn out to become societal misfits. To this end we encourage that: Children should be given a free platform to express themselves on many topical issues and issues relating to their existence.
Children should also be allowed to freely ask questions on any issue, no matter, how weird it seems to be.
Governments should make regulations outlawing societal norms and values that might amount to child abuses.
Corporal punishments by parents, guardians and care-givers should be discouraged at all levels, thereby making parents/guardians/care-givers who seem to be incorrigible, to face the full weight of justice enshrined in the law of the land.
Education system (both conventional and unconventional) in Nigeria should be able to train up young ones into becoming critical, analytical and evaluative individuals with a view of defending the vulnerable.
And again, since children are said to be leaders of tomorrow, it is pertinent to note that to secure their future, their present existence must be cherished and protected.
Christian Chimemerem Uzoukwu
08100029867 / 09025760804
Admin Critical Thinkers’ Forum.
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